Ira Klemons, D.D.S., Ph.D. Director


Headaches Migraines • Pain in the Head, Face, Jaw, TMJ, Eye, and Ear
Ringing in the Ears (Tinnitus)
DizzinessPressure in the Ears
Blurry Vision (which comes and goes)Frequent Sore ThroatsDifficulty Swallowing
Sensation of an Object Stuck in the ThroatBurning Tongue
Sleep Apnea • Snoring

Convenient New Jersey Location

Telephone: 732-727-5000
Int'l Tel: +1-732-727-5000
1-800-4-HEADPAIN (443-2372)


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The Center for

Headaches and Facial Pain



Welcome to the Center for Headaches
and Facial Pain

My life was out of control and I was in a severe panic not knowing what to do because of the unbearable earaches and headaches Dr. Klemons fixed the problem and I couldn’t be happier. I’ve never seen a doctor and his staff as great as this ” - Burt M.

"I had migraines and severe earaches for 37 years. The pain was often so bad that I had to go to hospital emergency rooms. After a while, I didn't bother because they couldn't help me anyway. It feels great to be without the pain and feeling normal and not taking medications. I'm going to miss coming for treatment. It's very relaxing, and I was really surprised by how fast I got better." - Elaine C.


Unless you are specifically looking for our Glossary, please click here to go to our Home Page


Glossary of "Terms and Phrases" used in Narrative Reports regarding head and facial pain and TMJ disorders. The following glossary is provided to assist in understanding some of the technical terms used in our Narrative Reports. These ARE NOT definitions taken directly from a dictionary. They are the working definitions which we employ. Terms and phrases are listed in the order that they are most likely to be found in our Narrative Reports. They are also cross-referenced in alphabetical order. If we can be of any further assistance, please do not hesitate to call.

  1. Mandible - lower jaw
  2. Ramus - vertical section of the mandible in front of the ear
  3. Body - horizontal section of the mandible at the bottom of the face
  4. Condyle - a "ball" which fits into a socket
  5. Glenoid Fossa - the socket within the temporal bone of the skull which forms the roof and side of the temporomandibular joint
  6. Disc - (meniscus) a structure which fits between the condyle and skull and is held in place by muscles and ligaments. This structure and its attached ligaments are typically damaged permanently as a result of cervical sprain/strain (whiplash) type injuries
  7. Occipital - back of the head
  8. Temporal - temples
  9. Parietal - side of the head
  10. Anterior Neck Muscles Anchor the Mandible Resulting in a Dislocation of the TM Joint
  11. Vertex - top of the head
  12. Frontal - forehead
  13. Retro-orbital (retro-bulbar) - behind the eyes
  14. Sub-occipital - back of the neck just below the skull
  15. Zygomatic and Maxillary region - area of the cheeks
  16. Pre, Post, Supra, Infra-auricular - in front of, behind, on top of, below the ear
  17. Digital Palpation - involves the application of pressure by the examiner's fingers
  18. Functional Manipulation - contraction of muscles by the patient when asked
  19. Bilateral - both sides
  20. Hyperalgesia - excessive sensitivity to pain
  21. Upper Quarter - head, neck, shoulders

NOTE: Structures listed under Clinical Examination are principally muscles of the head and neck. In the Clinical Examination section, a substantial list of muscles and other structures may be listed. When a specific muscle is painful, it is listed by its name. The attachments and function for many are listed below. Others can be found in other areas within this glossary. Please see the alphabetical listing.

Attaches From:
Posterior belly from mastoid bone; anterior belly from anterior aspect of mandible

Attaches To:
Both bellies by tendon which passes through a loop attached to the hyoid bone

Function:Raises hyoid bone and base of tongue, steadies hyoid bone

Attaches From:
Occipital bone and all cervical and thoracic vertebrae

Attaches To: Shoulder (Clavicle, Scapula)

Function: Steadies the Scapula and controls its function in movements of the arm; draws the head back and laterally

Attaches From:
Upper head from sphenoid bone; lower head from lateral pterygoid plate

Attaches To:
Mandibular condyle and capsule of TM joint Function: Protrudes mandible, pulls articular disc forward; assists in rotary motion while chewing

Attaches From:
Lateral pterygoid plate and palatine bone

Attaches To:
Lower part of ramus and angle of mandible

Protracts and elevates lower jaw; assists in rotary motion while chewing

Attaches From:
C3, C4, C5, C6 vertebrae

Attaches To:
First rib

Elevates first rib; flexes and rotates cervical column

Attaches From:
C2, C3, C4, C5, C6 vertebrae

Attaches To:
First rib lateral to scalenus anticus

Elevates first rib; flexes cervical column laterally

Attaches From:
Upper part of the sternum and upper surface of clavicle

Attaches To:
Mastoid process of temporal bone

Singly, draws head toward shoulder and rotates it pointing chin cranially and to opposite side; together, flex head; raise thorax when head is fixed

Attaches From:
Zygomatic arch

Attaches To:
Angle of mandible

Elevates jaw, clenches teeth

Attaches From:
Lateral aspect of the skull

Attaches To:
Coronoid process and ramus of mandible

Elevates jaw, retracts mandible, clenches teeth

Attaches From:
Greater wing of the sphenoid bone behind the orbit

Attaches To:
Temporal crest of the mandible

Believed to aid in elevating the mandible

Attaches From:
Posterior region of the orbital part of the zygomatic bone and the sphenoid bone

Attaches To:
Anterior mandibular ramus

Believed to aid in elevating the mandible

Attaches From:
Superior aspect of orbit

Attaches To:
Skin of medial half of eyebrow

Draws eyebrows downward and medially, produces wrinkles in frowning; principle muscle in expression of suffering

Attaches From:
Posterior to the palate, mandible, side of tongue

Attaches To:
Identical muscle on opposite side, occipital bone Function: Contracts pharynx in swallowing

Special Note:
Dysfunction of this muscle or its attachment can result in referral of pain to the throat, and a sensation of sore throat, difficulty breathing or swallowing

Maximum Intercuspation - maximum intermeshing of teeth (this is used in a test in which the patient is asked to bite as hard as possible)

Coronoid Process - a section of the mandible approximately 1 inch in front of the condyle

Longus Colli - a thin muscle along the front surface of the vertebrae. In whiplash type injuries, it frequently is severely over-stretched or torn. Subsequently, it goes into spasm and causes the vertebrae to lose their normal curved relationship. This also results in the head being displaced in front of the body instead of over the shoulders. This puts a tremendous strain on the muscles of the neck and back.

Anterior Belly, Posterior Belly - the digastric muscle has two sections. The bulk of each of these muscles is called a belly.

Palpable Band - a band of hardened tissue that can be felt with the fingers

Jump Sign - a pain response by the patient, which results from compressing a tender area

Twitch Response - sudden movement of a damaged muscle which occurs when it is examined

Scalenus Muscles - a group of muscles which pass within the neck

Ultrasonic Doppler Sonography - An ultrasonic testing device which operates on the same principle as Doppler Radar. It allows the listener to hear blood flowing through arteries, and recognize the presence of stretched ligaments and perforated or displaced discs.

Provocation Testing - testing of a structure by direct compression

Diagnostic Anesthetic Block - use of local anesthetics by injection to determine the probable cause of pain

Dorsal Scapular Nerve Syndrome - a painful condition of the mid-back, between the shoulder blades, resulting from entrapment of a nerve

Thoracic Outlet Syndrome - a syndrome involving pain or a numb sensation in the arms resulting from compression of a nerve or artery

Stylomandibular Ligament - a ligament connecting the styloid process (which attaches to the mastoid bone of the skull), and the posterior aspect of the mandible approximately 1 cm below the ear lobe

Short Head of the Temporal Tendon - tendinous attachment of the temporalis muscle at the tip of the coronoid process of the mandible

Long Head of the Temporal Tendon - tendinous attachment of the temporalis muscle to an area of the mandible above and behind the molar teeth

Infra-Hyoid Musculature - the muscles below the hyoid bone connecting to the upper chest

Palpation - process of examining by application of the hands or fingers to the surface of the body to detect evidence of disease or abnormalities in the various organs

Auditory Canals - the opening into the ear. Its anterior wall forms the posterior wall of the temporomandibular joint.

Range of Motion Studies - measurements of jaw movement which can aid in diagnosis

Craniocervical - refers to the head and neck

Intervertebral Foramen - opening between vertebrae which allows the passage of nerves and blood vessels

Mannkopf-Rumpf's Test - an objective test of the patient's experience of pain

Fixation of a Vertebra - vertebrae sometimes rotate and "jam" into a particular position preventing normal rotation and potentially inhibiting nerve and blood vessel function

Interincisal - between the edges of the upper and lower front teeth

Lateral Deviation - a side shift by the mandible upon opening or closing. There should not be any lateral deviation.

Anterior Head Posture - normally the head should be directly over the shoulders. If it is postured forward, a tremendous strain results. The actual position of the head is measured between the posterior aspect of the back of the neck and a line tangent to the thoracic spine.

Deglutition Testing - testing of the swallow mechanism

Swallow Dysphagia - abnormal functioning of the swallow mechanism; difficulty swallowing

Myotatic Reflex - Stretch reflex; reflex contraction by a group of muscles under certain conditions

Anterior Cervical Muscles - muscles of the front of the neck

Reflex Hyperactivity - increased activity or spasm of muscle as a result of an automatic reflex

Masticatory Elevator Muscles - the muscles which close the jaw

Surface Electrodes - electrodes which are used to pick up electrical activity without the use of needles. These electrodes stick to the skin.

Craniofacial - refers to the head and face

Lamina Dura - the ligaments between the root of a tooth and its supporting bone. These appear as a space on an x-ray.

Bruxism - grinding ones teeth - a natural activity in humans and lower animals

Parafunctional Habit - use of the mouth or jaw in an abnormal fashion, such as for clenching, grinding, biting one's nails, etc.

Dentition - refers to the teeth

Mandibular Dysfunction - another way of saying temporomandibular joint dysfunction

Occlusal Interference - problems in the patient's bite, such as high cusps or fillings

Epidemiologic - studies of diseases within populations, as opposed to within individuals

Anterior Vertebral Muscles - the muscles which connect the vertebrae together along their anterior surfaces

Longus Colli - a thin muscle along the front surface of the vertebrae. In whiplash type injuries, it frequently is severely over-stretched or torn. Subsequently, it goes into spasm and causes the vertebrae to lose their normal curved relationship. This also results in the head being displaced in front of the body instead of over the shoulders. This puts a tremendous strain on the muscles of the neck and back.

Reverse Curve - in the neck, a lordosis is the normal type of curve. If the normal curve (lordosis) of the neck is reversed, a kyphosis is formed.

Reverse Bow - in this case, a reverse curve within a segment of the cervical spine

Inferior Segment - the lowest three or four cervical vertebrae closest to the thoracic spine

Degenerative Changes - in this case, break down and irregularities of bone

Intervertebral Space - the space between two vertebrae. When this space is reduced, disc damage has commonly occurred.

Tomograph - A special type of x-ray which shows "slices" of sections of bone, thereby allowing a more detailed evaluation of the structure than could be obtained with "plain film" x-rays.

Transorbital Radiographs Of The TMJ - Radiograph of the TM joint taken from front to back (passing through the orbit of the eye) allowing a medio-lateral (side to side) view of the condyle.

Thermograph - Device for registering (on a photograph) variations of heat on a patient's body. This can be used to assist in diagnosis of various pathological conditions.

Neuro - nerve

Electromyogram - in this case, a computerized system for determining electrical activity within specific muscles of the head, face, and neck. Surface electrodes are employed rather than needles, making this a totally painless procedure. Objective, numerical, and graphic readings are provided by the EMG's computer. This allows us to determine which muscles may be most significantly involved in the patient's dysfunction. Since the numerical values provided are completely objective, this test can demonstrate whether a patient is likely to be a malingerer.

Orthosis - orthopedic appliance; orthotic appliance; device employed to straighten or correct a deformity or disability. We employ a variety of different orthoses with various functions.

Lateral Collateral Ligament - ligaments which support the disc within the temporomandibular joint to the lateral aspect of the TMJ condyle

Medial Collateral Ligament - ligaments which support the disc within the temporomandibular joint to the medial aspect of the TMJ condyle

Posterior Ligamentous Attachment - the attachment of the posterior ligaments to the posterior aspect of the TMJ disc

Perforation - hole

Anterior Disc Displacement without Reduction - dislocation of the disc away from its normal position to a position in front of the condyle. In this, frequently excruciatingly painful condition, the disc is jammed into an abnormal position and does not return to its normal location. Gradually the disc and its ligaments degenerate and degenerative arthritis develops.

Anterior Disc Displacement with Reduction - a condition similar to the above, however enough integrity of the ligaments is maintained, that the disc is repositioned normally over the condyle in certain positions of the mandible

Vascular Pooling - edema, swelling

Articular Cartilage - the cartilage which overlies the bone within the temporomandibular joint

Chondromalacia - degeneration of the articular cartilage

Hemorrhage - bleeding, clotting

Fibrous Adhesion - pathological attachment between two surfaces which would not be joined in the normal healthy state. Frequently occurs within the TM joint as a result of hemorrhage into the joint following cervical sprains or direct trauma to the jaw.

Myalgia - muscle pain

Myofasciitis - inflamed condition of a muscle and its fascia

Arthropathy - diseased joint

Cervicalgia - neck pain

Swallow Dysphagia - abnormal functioning of the swallow mechanism; difficulty swallowing

Otalgia - pain or blockage of the ear

Tinnitus - ringing, buzzing, or roaring sounds in the ear

Vertigo - dizziness

Coronoid Tendonitis - inflammation or pain of the tendon which attaches to the coronoid process of the mandible (a bony segment of the mandible)

Interstitial Myofibrositis - a degenerative change in muscle characterized by abnormal intra- and extra-cellular components. Such muscles are highly irritable and easily go into spasm. Resulting pain may be localized or referred to other areas.

Posterior Capsulitis - inflammation of the posterior aspect of the temporo-mandibular joint

Stylomandibular Ligament Sprain Syndrome - a pain pattern produced by injury to the stylomandibular ligament which may include pain in the head, ear, face, eye and/or neck

Temporal Tendonitis - inflammation of the temporal tendon. This often produces a pain pattern which may include referral to the head, face, eye and/or neck

Temporalis Muscle - the muscle located along the side of the head which is used to close the mouth. It has a narrow tendon (temporal tendon) which passes deep to the zygomatic arch (cheek bone) to attach to the lower jaw.

Omohyoid Syndrome - a syndrome of head, face, neck, shoulder and chest pain which frequently occurs along with vomiting

Hyoid Syndrome - a syndrome of head, face, neck, shoulder and chest pain related to fracture of the hyoid bone or injury to its attached tendons and ligaments

Superior Pharyngeal Constrictor Muscle Syndrome - a syndrome of pain in the head, face and neck, difficulty breathing or swallowing, and sore throat which results from injury to the superior pharyngeal constrictor muscle

Physical Medicine Modalities - therapeutic modalities such as electrogalvanic stimulation (EGS; high voltage stimulation), ultrasound, hydrocollator or cryotherapy (cold therapy), which are employed to aid in returning muscles and joints to normal function and reduce pain

Postural Relationship of the Head and Shoulders - the head is normally maintained in a specified position over the shoulders. Typically following neck injuries, the head changes position. It is important that this position be returned to normal to prevent subsequent degeneration and pain.

Arthrodial Protractor - a large protractor used for measuring range of motion of joints

Superficial Temporal Artery - provides arterial blood to the temporomandibular joint and several muscles of the head

Transcranial - across the skull

Transcranial Oblique Radiographs - (TOR) x-ray of the TM joints taken across the skull from the side

Corrected TOR - are taken at an angle individualized to the patient by measuring the medio-lateral axes of the condyles on Submental Vertex Radiographs

Submental Vertex Radiographs - x-ray of the skull taken through the skull from below the chin

Lateral Skull x-ray - see cephalometric radiograph

Cephalometric Radiograph - x-ray of the skull and cervical vertebrae taken from the side

A-P Skull Radiograph - x-ray of the skull taken from front to back

P-A Skull Radiograph - x-ray of the skull taken from back to front

Tomogram (Laminogram) - a special x-ray which allows you to see a "slice" of bone without the interference of other bony structures which are in line with the structure being visualized

Coronal View - an x-ray taken on an angle from the front to the side of the skull to visualize the width of the temporomandibular joint condyles

Orthopantograph - a special type of tomogram which shows the lower half of the face including the lower and upper jaws and sinuses

Styloid Process - a very thin finger-like projection of bone at the base of the skull medial to the ear lobe.

Condyle - the ball of the temporomandibular joint which fits into its socket (fossa)

Morphology - shape

Displaced - not in the correct position

Glenoid Fossa - the socket within the temporal bone of the skull which forms the roof and side of the temporomandibular joint

Normal Concavity - normal dished out shape of the socket

Translation - forward movement or position of the condyle when the mouth opens fully

Hypercycloidal Tomography - a special type of tomogram

Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) - See Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)

Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) - a method of visualizing soft tissue in order to diagnose damaged and mal-positioned TMJ discs - as well as diseases in other parts of the body

Arthrogram - a method of visualizing the disc of the temporomandibular joint. It requires injection of contrast media into the joint and multiple x-rays

CAT Scan (CT) - a computerized x-ray system which allows visualization of the disc within the temporomandibular joint

Trismus - inability to open the mouth

Ricketts, Robert - a researcher and clinician

Bilaminar Zone - the posterior aspect of the TM joint, which includes especially the blood vessels that supply the area. It also contains nerves, connective tissue, and ligaments.

Osseous Pathosis - bone disease

Inflammatory Osteoarthritis - inflammation of joint structures, frequently due to trauma

Intracapsular - inside the capsule of a joint

Craniovertebral - the connection and relationship of the skull with the vertebrae of the neck

C1, C2, C3, etc. - each of the vertebrae of the neck are referred to by the letter "C", followed by its position below the skull. For example, C1 is the first cervical vertebra.

Atlas - C1, first cervical vertebra

Axis - C2, second cervical vertebra

Dens of C2 - the vertical, finger-like projection of C2, which fits within the front part of the ring of C1

McGregor's Plane - an imaginary line connecting two points on a Lateral Skull Radiograph

Basi-occiput - the inferior segment of the occipital bone adjacent to the foramen magnum (opening of the skull between the brain and the spinal cord)

Posterior Spinous Process - the horizontal projection from the back part of a vertebra

Sub-occipital Nerves - the nerves in the region just below the skull

Posteriorization of the Mandible - displacement of the lower jaw posteriorly (towards the back of the head)

Airway Space - the space within the oropharyngeal region which allows air to pass to the lungs

Supra- and Infra-hyoid Musculature - the muscles which attach to the hyoid bone

Hyoid Bone - a small, u-shaped bone in the front of the throat, above the Adam's apple. It has many muscle and ligament attachments, and is not immediately adjacent to any other bone.

Positive Hyoid Triangle - an objective way of determining that the hyoid bone is raised considerably above its proper position. This typically occurs as a result of neck and TM joint injuries and objectively verifies the potential presence of swallow dysphagia.

Loss of the Hyoid Triangle - an objective way of determining that the hyoid bone is raised above its proper position. This typically occurs as a result of neck and TM joint injuries and objectively verifies the potential presence of swallow dysphagia.

Negative Hyoid Triangle - objectively indicates that the hyoid bone is in a normal position

Straightened or Reversed Curvature of the Cervical Spine - the normal relationship of the cervical vertebrae involves the presence of a curve in which the bow faces forward, matching the curvature of the nose (lordosis). When the muscles of the neck are injured, this normal curve may be lost, thereby producing a straight neck, or even cause the curve to reverse in the opposite direction (kyphosis).

Craniomandibular - refers to the skull and mandible

Physiologic Length - muscles have a normal length at rest, much like a rubber band which always returns to its normal size when tension is released

Decompress the Discs - move the mandibular condyles down or forward to reduce the pressure on the internal structures of this joint

Retrodiscal Tissues (bilaminar zone) - tissue found posterior to the condyles, particularly including blood vessels, nerves, lymphatic vessels, and ligaments

Electrogalvanic Stimulation (high voltage stimulation) - an electronic physical therapy modality employed to increase blood flow and normal function of muscle while decreasing inflammation and spasm

Iontophoresis - an electronic device which allows medication to pass through the skin into a muscle or joint without the use of a needle

Ultrasound - an electronic device which stimulates a crystal to vibrate at a very high frequency. Its function is to provide heat to deep structures and may be used to physically drive medications into and beyond the skin (phonophoresis).

Phonophoresis - see ultrasound

Transcutaneous Electrical Neural Stimulation (TENS) - an electronic device used to stimulate the body's own pain killers. In some cases, it may aid in reducing inflammation.

Biofeedback - a computerized system used to help the patient to control his/her own muscle spasm and tension, or other physiological functions.

Physical Manipulation - manipulative procedures such as joint mobilization, myofascial release and progressive soft tissue stretching. These are not chiropractic procedures.

Neuro Muscular Re-education - exercise training to assist the patient to improve normal function

Cryotherapy - cold therapy

Trigger Area Injection - trigger point injection; the use of local anesthetics and other medications to bring about healing of very painful muscle, fascia, skin, and other structures. The pain from these areas is frequently felt at distant sites (referred pain).

Internal Derangement - damage of various types which may occur within a joint. With respect to the TM joint, this may include anterior disc displacement with or without reduction, torn ligaments, condylar fractures, disc stretching or perforation, etc.

Disc Recapturing Appliance - an orthosis which is used to assist in repositioning the disc to its correct position above the condyle

Superior - above

Inferior - below

Medial - towards the middle of the body

Distal - away from the middle of the body

Masticatory Muscles - the muscles involved most directly in the function of chewing

Osteophyte - a bony growth typically related to degenerative osteoarthritis. In the temporomandibular joint osteophytes are typically seen along the anterior surface of the condyle. In time, these may break off and become loose bodies (joint mice) which must be removed surgically.

Reactive Muscles - muscles which are tender or painful under gentle pressure

Auscultation - process of listening for sounds within the body

Epimysial Fibrosis - scarification of the outermost sheath of connective tissue that surrounds a skeletal muscle

Collagen - A fibrous insoluble protein found in the connective tissue

Avascular - devoid of blood vessels

Replacement Fibrosis - replacement of muscle tissue with fibrous scar tissue

Undifferentiated Mesenchyme - alteration in cell character to a more embryonic type. A diffuse network of cells forming the embryonic mesoderm and giving rise to connective tissues, blood and blood vessels, the lymphatic system, and cells of the reticuloendothelium system

Reflux of Gastric Contents into the Esophagus - regurgitation of food, enzymes, and acid from the stomach into the esophagus

Angina Pectoris - severe pain and constriction about the heart, usually radiating to the left shoulder and down the left arm, or, rarely, from the heart to the abdomen

Renstrom, P., M.D. - a well-known Swedish orthopedic surgeon and lecturer

Peripheral - located at, or pertaining to, the periphery; occurring away from the brain

Neurosurgery - Surgery involving the nervous system

Radiofrequency Thermoneurolysis - an electronic surgical procedure for turning off pain impulses

Peripheral Neurosurgery - surgery to turn off pain impulses at a site other than the brain

Arthroscopy - a method for visualizing the internal joint structures, including the disc, using a small video camera with a lens which projects into the joint. In addition, under certain circumstances, surgical instruments which are passed through a second tube which penetrates the joint, can be used for surgical alteration.




Adhesion - 87
A-P Skull Radiograph -115
Airway Space - 148
Angina Pectoris - 185
Anterior Belly - 25
Anterior Cervical Muscles - 52
Anterior Head Posture - 48
Anterior Disc Displacement with Reduction - 82
Anterior Disc Displacement - 81
Anterior Vertebral Muscles - 64
Arthrodial Protractor - 107
Arthrogram - 130
Arthropathy - 90
Arthroscopy - 191
Articular Cartilage - 84
Atlas - 140
Auditory Canals - 40
Auricular - 15
Auscultation - 178
Avascular - 181
Axis - 141


Basi-occiput - 144
Belly - 25
Bilaminar Zone - 134, 158
Bilateral - 18
Biofeedback - 164
Body - 3
Bruxism - 58


C1, C2, C3, etc. - 139
Capsulitis - 98
CAT Scan (CT) - 131
Cephalometric Radiograph - 114
Cervicalgia - 91
Cervical Muscles - 52
Chondromalacia - 85
Collagen - 180
Collateral Ligament - 77
Condyle - 4, 121
Coronal View - 118
Coronoid Process - 23
Coronoid Tendonitis - 96
Corrected Transcranial Oblique Interincisal - 111
Corrugator Supercilii - 21
Craniocervical - 42
Craniofacial - 56
Craniomandibular - 155
Craniovertebral - 138
Cryotherapy - 167


Decompress the Discs - 157
Degenerative Changes - 69
Deglutition Testing - 49
Dens of C2 - 142
Dentition - 60
Diagnostic Anesthetic Block - 32
Digastric - 21
Digital Palpation - 16
Disc - 6
Disc Displacement with Reduction - 82
Disc Displacement without Reduction - 81
Disc Recapturing Appliance - 170
Distal - 174
Displaced - 123
Doppler Sonography - 30
Dorsal Scapular Nerve Syndrome - 33
Dysphagia - 50



Electrogalvanic Stimulation - 159
Electrodes - 55
Electromyogram - 75
Elevator Muscles - 54
Epidemiologic - 63
Epimysial Fibrosis - 179
Esophagus - 184
External Pterygoid - 21


Fibrous Adhesion - 87
Fixation of a Vertebra - 43
Foramen - 43
Frontal - 11
Functional Manipulation - 17


Glenoid Fossa - 5, 124


Head & Shoulders - 106
Hemorrhage - 86
High Voltage Stimulation - 159
Hyoid Bone - 150
Hyoid Musculature - 149
Hyoid Syndrome - 103
Hyoid Triangle - 152
Hyperalgesia - 19
Hypercycloidal Tomography - 127


Inferior - 172
Inferior Segment - 68
Inflammatory Osteoarthritis - 136
Infra-hyoid Musculature - 38
Intercuspation - 22
Internal Derangement - 169
Internal Pterygoid - 21
Interstitial Myofibrositis - 97
Intervertebral Foramen - 43
Intervertebral Space - 70
Intracapsular - 137
Iontophoresis - 160


Joint Mice - 176
Jump Sign - 27


Lamina Dura - 57
Laminogram - 117
Lateral Collateral Ligament - 77
Lateral Deviation - 47
Lateral Skull Xray - 113, 114
Ligamentous Attachment - 79
Long Head of the Temporal Tendon - 37
Longus Colli - 24, 65
Loss of the Hyoid Triangle - 152


Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) - 129
Mandible - 1
Mannkopf-Rumpf's Test - 44
Masseter - 21
Masticatory Elevator Muscles - 54
Masticatory Muscles - 175
Maxillary Region - 14
Maximum Intercuspation - 22
McGregor's Plane - 143
Medial - 173
Meniscus - 6
Mesenchyme - 183
Morphology - 122
Myalgia - 88
Myofascitis - 89
Myotatic Reflex - 51


Negative Hyoid Triangle - 153
Neuro - 74
Neuro Muscular Re-education - 166
Neurosurgery - 188
Normal Concavity - 125
Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR)- 128


Occipital - 7
Occlusal Interference - 62
Omohyoid Syndrome - 102
Orthopantograph - 119
Orthosis - 76
Osseous Pathosis - 135
Osteophyte - 176
Otalgia - 93


P-A Skull Radiograph - 116
Palpable Band - 26
Palpation - 39
Parafunctional Habit - 59
Parietal - 9
Perforation - 80
Peripheral - 187
Peripheral Neurosurgery - 190
Phonophoresis - 161,162
Physical Manipulation - 165
Physical Medicine Modalities - 105
Physiologic Length - 156
Pooling - 83
Positive Hyoid Triangle - 151
Posterior Belly - 25
Posterior Capsulitis - 98
Posteriorization of the Mandible - 147
Posterior Ligamentous Attachment - 79
Posterior Spinous Process - 145
Postural Relationship of the Mandibular Dysfunction - 106
Provocation Testing - 31


Radiofrequency Thermoneurolysis - 189
Ramus - 2
Range of Motion Studies - 41
Reactive Muscles - 177
Referred Pain - 168
Reflex Hyperactivity - 53
Reflux of Gastric Contents into the Esophagus - 184
Renstrom, P., M.D. - 186
Replacement Fibrosis - 182
Retro-Bulbar - 12
Retrodiscal Tissues - 158
Retro-Orbital - 12
Reverse Bow - 67
Reverse Curve - 66
Ricketts, Robert - 133


Scalenus Anticus - 21
Scalenus Medius - 21
Scalenus Muscles - 29
Short Head of the Temporal Tendon - 36
Stimulation (TENS) - 163
Straightened or Reversed Curve of the Cervical Spine - 154
Styloid Process - 120
Stylomandibular Ligament - 35
Stylomandibular Ligament Sprain Syndrome - 99
Submental Vertex Radiographs - 112
Sub-occipital - 13
Sub-occipital Nerves - 146
Superficial Temporal Artery - 108


Temporal - 8
Temporal Artery - 108
Temporalis - 21, 101
Temporalis Muscle - 101, 21
Temporal Tendonitis - 100
Tendonitis - 96, 100
Thermograph - 73
Thoracic Outlet Syndrome - 34
Tinnitus - 94
Tomogram - 117
Tomograph - 71
Transcranial - 109
Transcranial Oblique Radiographs - 110
Transcutaneous Electrical Neural Stimulation (TENS) - 163
Translation - 126
Transorbital Radiographs of the TMJ - 72
Trapezius - 21
Trigger Area Injection - 168
Trismus - 132
Twitch Response - 28


Ultrasonic Doppler Sonography - 30
Ultrasound - 161
Undifferentiated Mesenchyme - 183
Upper Quarter - 20


Vascular Pooling - 83
Vertebral Muscles - 64
Vertex - 10
Vertigo - 95


Zygomandibularis - 21
Zygomatic Region - 14, 101


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Phone consultations with professionals are welcome, or click here to contact us. Dr. Klemons and our staff would love to meet you in person. Call 732-727-5000 to set up an appointment today.

Patients are referred to us by physicians, dentists, chiropractors, psychologists, physical therapists and other professionals. However, many of our patients are referred by former patients or based on their own decision without the need for a referral.



Headaches • Migraines • Pain in the Head, Face, Jaw, TMJ, Eye, and Ear • Ringing in the Ears (Tinnitus ) • Dizziness • Pressure in the Ears • Blurry Vision (which comes and goes) • Frequent Sore Throats • Difficulty Swallowing • Sensation of an Object Stuck in the Throat • Burning Tongue • Sleep Apnea Snoring

Ira M. Klemons, D.D.S., Ph.D., Director, The Center for Headaches and Facial Pain

2045 Route 35 South
South Amboy,  NJ 08879 U.S.A.   

USA Telephone: 732-727-5000
 International Telephone: +1-732-727-5000
  Fax: 732-727-5497
Email: [email protected]

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The Center for Headaches and Facial Pain South Amboy, NJ.
Reproduction or republication is strictly prohibited without prior written permission

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